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Chinese historiography Timeline of Chinese history Dynasties in Chinese history Linguistic history Art history Economic history Education history Science and technology history Legal history Media history Military history Naval history. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", [ 2 ] was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese.
Although the Ming capital Beijing fell in to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng who established the Shun Dynasty , soon replaced by the Manchu -led Qing Dynasty , regimes loyal to the Ming throne — collectively called the Southern Ming — survived until Ming rule saw the construction of a vast navy and a standing army of one million troops. There were enormous construction projects, including the restoration of the Grand Canal and the Great Wall and the establishment of the Forbidden City in Beijing during the first quarter of the 15th century.
Estimates for the late-Ming population vary from to million. Emperor Hongwu ruled in —98 attempted to create a society of self-sufficient rural communities in a rigid, immobile system that would have no need to engage with the commercial life and trade of urban centers. His rebuilding of China's agricultural base and strengthening of communication routes through the militarized courier system had the unintended effect of creating a vast agricultural surplus that could be sold at burgeoning markets located along courier routes.
Rural culture and commerce became influenced by urban trends. The upper echelons of society embodied in the scholarly gentry class were also affected by this new consumption-based culture.
In a departure from tradition, merchant families began to produce examination candidates to become scholar-officials and adopted cultural traits and practices typical of the gentry. Parallel to this trend involving social class and commercial consumption were changes in social and political philosophy, bureaucracy and governmental institutions, and even arts and literature. By the 16th century the Ming economy was stimulated by trade with the Portuguese , the Spanish , and the Dutch.